Message to the Congress
Reporting on the National Emergency With Respect to Nicaragua
October 30, 1987
the Congress of the United States:
hereby report to the Congress on developments since my last report of May
concerning the national emergency with respect to Nicaragua that was declared in
Executive Order No. 12513 of May 1, 1985. In that Order, I
prohibited: (1) all imports into the United States of goods and services of
Nicaraguan origin; (2) all exports from the United States of goods to or
destined for Nicaragua except those destined for the organized democratic
resistance; (3) Nicaraguan air carriers from engaging in air transportation to
or from points in the United States; and (4) vessels of Nicaraguan registry
from entering United States ports.
The declaration of emergency was made pursuant to the authority vested in me as
President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including the
International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq., and the
National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq. This report is submitted
pursuant to 50 U.S.C. 1641(c) and 1703(c).
The Office of Foreign Assets Control of the Department of the Treasury issued
the Nicaraguan Trade Control Regulations implementing the prohibitions in
Executive Order No. 12513 on May 8, 1985, 50 Fed. Reg. 19890 (May
There have been no changes in those regulations in the past 6 months. On March
a decision by the United States District Court for the District of
Massachusetts upholding the exercise of emergency powers in the Nicaraguan
context was affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals for the First
Circuit in Beacon Products Corp. v. Reagan.
Since my report of May 1, 1987, fewer than 30
applications for licenses have been received with respect to Nicaragua, and the majority of
these applications have been granted. Of the licenses issued in this period,
most either authorized exports for humanitarian purposes, covering medical
supplies, food, and animal vaccines, or extended authorizations previously
given to acquire intellectual property protection under Nicaraguan law.
The trade sanctions complement the diplomatic and other aspects of our policy
toward Nicaragua. They exert additional
pressure intended to induce the Sandinistas to undertake serious dialogue with
representatives of all elements of the Nicaraguan democratic resistance and to
respond favorably to the many opportunities available for achieving a
negotiated settlement of the conflict in Central America. The trade sanctions
are part of a larger policy seeking a democratic outcome in Nicaragua by peaceful means.
The expenses incurred by the Federal Government in the period from May 1, 1987,
through October 31, 1987, that are directly attributable to the exercise of
powers and authorities conferred by the declaration of the Nicaraguan national
emergency are estimated at approximately $167,800, all of which represents wage
and salary costs for Federal personnel. Personnel costs were largely centered
in the Department of the Treasury (particularly in the Customs Service, as well
as in the Office of Foreign Assets Control, the Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Enforcement, and the Office of the General Counsel), with
expenses also incurred by the Department of State and the National Security
The policies and actions of the Government of Nicaragua continue to pose an
unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of
the United States. I shall continue to
exercise the powers at my disposal to apply economic sanctions against
Nicaragua as long as these measures are appropriate and will continue to report
periodically to the Congress on expenses and significant developments pursuant
to 50 U.S.C. 1641(c) and 1703(c).
October 30, 1987.